How has urbanization affected farming trends?

Urbanization leads to a continuous loss of agricultural land, both directly in the form of land appropriation and indirectly through the use of agricultural land for non-productive rural activities, such as recreation, horse husbandry or hobby agriculture. Urbanization also has implications for the social aspects of agriculture. Most city residents work in industrial or service sectors; therefore, less food is produced than is consumed in urban areas. Because most of the urban poor have low and irregular incomes and their access to agricultural products is limited, they are more vulnerable to food insecurity than the poor in rural areas (Tacoli, 2010).

Among wealthy urban residents, part-time, hobby and retirement farming practices are becoming more common than professional agriculture, while social agriculture has become all the rage in the urban periphery. This change reduced the number of full-time farmers and landowners who actually farm (Primdahl et al. Urbanization also has a strong indirect influence on the livelihoods of farmers in the interior (Zasada, 201.The demand for food and food-based products in urban areas increases, which may present opportunities for farmers and other actors in food value chains) (Hatab et al. Urbanization is often accompanied by increased levels of wealth, but the distribution of this economic wealth is often uneven (Davis and Henderson, 200).

Access to the labor market is different for men and women in cities due to unequal sociocultural structures; women often lack opportunities (Sen, 201.Therefore, urbanization profoundly influences land use and the social systems of communities that are in or near urban agglomerations) (Busck et al. The GE scenario results in the highest average farm size (91.0 ha), which is slightly larger than the average size of the farms in the BAU and RC scenarios (86.4 ha and 87.5 ha, respectively). Rotational agriculture and land-based livestock, which are associated with large farms, are relatively more present in regions with a lower population density (Van Hecke et al. Secondly, two contrasting arguments were selected and an argument that everything remains the same and its scale was reduced to quantify the impact at the level of individual farms by combining a cellular automaton model on urbanization and an agent-based model to model individual farms.

In the proposed model, urban expansion leads to greater pressure on farmers, but the extent of the decline in the agricultural population depends on their own characteristics, agricultural structure and regional characteristics. For the BAU's argument, it was based on the assumption that the profitability of farms would not change and that current trends would persist. The model configuration described above requires a database with the location of all farms and their plots, the type of farm and the age of the farmer. The average profitability of a farm will result in the farm having a probability of succession in accordance with the average succession change of the agricultural region in which it is located (Figure, higher profitability will increase the probability of succession, lower profitability will reduce the probability of succession).

Both areas are characterized by strong urbanization, but the area east of Brussels has a relatively young agricultural population with large farms, which makes them more resilient than the older population of farmers west of Brussels, which experienced a sharp decline. A farmer will retire at the statutory retirement age if a successor is present (following the previous succession decision process); otherwise, the farmer will continue to cultivate with a small farm. As a result of the direct loss, the size of the farms of the affected farmers is decreasing, which translates into lower profitability for their farm. In the case of types of terrestrial agriculture (producers of permanent and rotating annual crops and terrestrial animal farms), there is a strong correlation between farm size and standard gross margin.

Land fragmentation, land use, land cover changes and the abandonment of the agricultural profession are some examples of the consequences of urbanization for agricultural systems (Seto and Ramankutty, 201.As a result of the aging of the agricultural population and low succession rates, simulations carried out up to 2035 showed a continuous decline in farmers in all scenarios; a trend that will continue until all farmers who abandon their activities are replaced). This trend has occurred in many high-income countries, and the convergence of rapid urbanization and the larger size of farms have created new demands for modern agricultural practices (complementary figures). The assignment procedure was based on a trial and error method that assigned plots to the nearest farm, taking into account the frequency distribution of farm size by municipality. .

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